SVA sentence

SVA = Subject + Verb + Adverbial

Elephants live here.
Elephants [SUBJECT] live [VERB] here. [ADVERBIAL]

In SVA sentences, the adverbial is required; without it, the sentence is grammatically incomplete:

Elephants live ??

Adverbs and adverbials are optional in the other 6 sentence patterns. You can include adverbials in any sentence you like, but the only sentence pattern that requires an adverbial is the SVA.

AND SEE:
Explanation of adverbs/adverbials
John Seely on the 5+2 sentence patterns
Adverbs at CCC
5+2: the 7 canonical sentence patterns in English
Grammar for Teachers by John Seely

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