TEST REVIEW

10.1.2013

UPDATE 4:01pm

Now that I have spent my entire day putting this post together, I see, with crystal clarity, that the material below is far too much for a simple “quiz.”

So:

Tomorrow’s test will be a matching test. (examples here and here) The test will ask you to match a term to its definition.

Terms on the test:

  1. Noun
  2. Pronoun
  3. Finite verb
  4. Nonfinite verb
  5. Auxiliary verb
  6. Phrase
  7. Clause
  8. Subject
  9. Predicate
  10. Independent clause
  11. Dependent clause
  12. Sentence
  13. Modifier
  14. Adjective clause (also called Relative clause)
  15. Restrictive clause
  16. Nonrestrictive clause

Be sure to study these handouts from class:

Handouts from other colleges that will help:

Be able to define and give an example:

  • Noun
  • Pronoun
  • Modifier
  • Adjective
  • Phrase
  • Clause
  • Sentence
  • Finite verb
  • Nonfinite verb
  • Independent clause (main clause)
  • Dependent clause (subordinate clause)
  • Adjective phrase
  • Adjective clause
  • Restrictive clause
  • Nonrestrictive clause

Be able to identify inside a sentence, and give an example:

Function words:

  • Determinative
  • Preposition
  • Pronoun
  • Coordinator
  • Subordinator

Content words:

  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Verb
  • Adverb

Definitions to know by heart:

  • Subject: 1. The subject of a sentence is usually a noun phrase* (the cat; the lost boys). 2 The subject’s default (standard) position is before the verb (Rex [SUBJECT] barked. [VERB] ). 3. In questions, the subject usually comes just after the first verb (Did [VERB] Rex [SUBJECT] bark?
  • Predicate: The verb or verb phrase in a clause. Huddleston & Pullum: “The predicate typically describes a property of the person or thing referred to by the subject, or describes a situation in which this person or thing plays some role.” (Rex barked. Rex barked constantly.)
  • Sentence: The simplest sentence consists of a single independent clause or of a sequence of independent clauses. (Rex barked. Rex barked, and Fido jumped. Rex barked, but Fido ran.)
  • Function words versus content words. The meaning of content words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs) can be looked up in the dictionary, while function words (pronouns, determinatives, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, coordinators, and subordinators) acquire most of their meaning from the sentences they appear in. Function words serve a grammatical purpose in a phrase, clause, or sentence, and are sometimes called “glue words” because they are the “glue” that holds words together. There are roughly 500 function words in English, of which 150 are used frequently, and function words make up around 55% of the words we use. Function words are called a “closed” word class because new ones develop only rarely. Content words are called an “open” word class because new content words come into being constantly.
  • Modifier: a word, phrase, or clause that adds information to the word it modifies (sad, sadly, happy, happily, in town, by the house, where I live…)
  • Noun: a word that refers to a person, place, thing, idea, emotion, etc. (John, girl; Dobbs Ferry; chair; freedom; love)
  • Pronoun: a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun (he, she, it, himself, it…)
  • Adjective: a word that modifies a noun or pronoun (red, tall, cute,…)
  • Phrase: a group of grammatically related words that does NOT have a subject-predicate structure (the cat; not “cat the“; on the beach, not “beach the on”)
  • Clause: Has a subject-predicate structure. Clauses may be independent or dependent. (Driving home, I saw an accident. “Driving home” is a dependent clause with an implied subject – “I” – and a nonfinite verb. “I saw an accident” is an independent clause.)
  • Finite verb: a FINITE verb changes spelling for the present and past tense (Today I run; yesterday I ran)
  • Nonfinite verb: a NONFINITE verb does not change spelling for tense (Today I am running; yesterday I was running)
  • Independent clause: an independent clause has a subject and a predicate, and it does not start with a subordinator. (Rex barked. “Rex barking” is not a clause because it lacks a finite verb. “Although Rex barked” is not an independent clause because it begins with a subordinator.)
  • Dependent clause: a dependent clause has a subject-predicate structure, but it cannot “stand alone” as a complete sentence.  The subject may be implied rather than stated, AND/OR the verb may be nonfinite, AND/OR the clause may begin with a subordinator or “dependent marker word.” (walking across the street, although I came in first)
  • Adjective phrase: a group of grammatically related words that modify a noun or a pronoun (This list of terms to memorize is getting awfully long. “Awfully long” is an adjective phrase that modifies “this list of words.”
  • Adjective clause (also called relative clause): a clause that modifies a noun or pronoun (The window air conditioning unit, which must be 20 years old, is insanely loud. “Which must be 20 years old” is an adjective clause that modifies “window air conditioning unit.”)
  • Restrictive clause: a clause that modifies a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun — AND is necessary in order to know which person/place/thing/idea the sentence is about. (The president who is on the one-dollar bill is George Washington. “Who is on the one-dollar bill” modifies “president.” Since the U.S. has had 43 presidents, we need “who is on the one-dollar bill” to tell us which president the sentence is talking about. The adjective clause is “restrictive” because it “restricts,” or limits, the meaning of “president” to George Washington. Another way to think of it: a restrictive is necessary to identify the noun it modifies.)
  • Nonrestrictive clause: a clause that modifies a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun (also called an adjective clause), noun phrase, or pronoun — and is NOT necessary in order to know which person/place/thing/idea the sentence is about (George Washington, who was the first president of the United States, is on the one-dollar bill. We know who George Washington is; we don’t need the adjective clause to identify him. Thus “who was the first president of the United States” is a nonrestrictive clause, and we enclose it in commas. We could also enclose it in parentheses or dashes.)

Be able to identify these words and phrases inside a sentence, and give an example:

  • Determinative: the, this, a, an, all, many, most, none, several, some, that, this (also called “determinator and “article”)
  • Preposition: by, for, in, to, from, etc.
  • Verb: run, go, sit, stand, speak, think, love, ….. am running, was thinking, will be going, has been seeing, does not like [NOTE: “not” is an adverb; “does like” is the verb phrase]
  • Adverb: happily, sadly, swifly, very
  • Coordinator [1]: FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
  • Coordinator [2]: “fancy FANBOYS” or adverbial conjunctions: however, moreover, otherwise, on the other hand, consequently, hence, also… [see handouts above]
  • Subordinator: although, when, since, where, until, whether, even if, as… Excellent list: Common subordinators from Sierra College

PARTS OF SPEECH

Huddleston and Pullum‘s parts of speech (2002):

i NOUN The dog barked. That is Sue. We saw you.
ii VERB The dog barked. It is impossible. I have a headache.
iii ADJECTIVE He’s very old. It looks empty. I’ve got a new car.
iv DETERMINATIVE The dog barked. I need some nails. All things change.
v ADVERB She spoke clearly. He’s very old. I almost died.
vi PREPOSITION It’s in the car. I gave it to Sam. Here’s a list of them.
vii COORDINATOR I got up and left. Ed or Jo took it.  It’s cheap but strong.
viii SUBORDINATOR It’s odd that they were late. I wonder whether it’s still available. They don’t know if you’re serious.

NOTE: In class, I’ve found it’s essential to know the word “pronoun” as well as noun, so “pronoun” will be included on the test!

NOUNS
A word that refers to a person, place, thing, idea, emotion, etc.
Common noun: book, chair, dog, cat
Proper noun: Dobbs Ferry, Jane Jacobs, Mercy College

PRONOUNS
Types of pronouns (Greenbaum and Nelson, 2002):

1. personal pronouns I, you, we, they…
2. possessive pronouns my, mine, your, yours…
3. reflexive pronouns myself, yourself…
4. demonstrative pronouns this, these, that, those…
5. reciprocal pronouns each other, one another
6. interrogative pronouns who, what, which…
7. relative pronouns which, who, that…
8. indefinite pronouns some, none…

Personal pronouns:
I
you
he
she
it,
we
they
me,
you
him
her
it
us
them

Possessive Pronouns:
my
your
his
her
its
our
their
mine
yours
his
hers
its
ours
theirs

Reflexive pronouns
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

Demonstrative pronouns
this
that
these
those
here
there
Source: Demonstrative Pronouns by English for Everyone

Reciprocal pronouns
each other
one another

Interrogative pronouns
what
which
who
whom
whose
whatever
whichever
whoever
whomever
whosever
Source: K12reader

Indefinite pronouns
all
another
any
anybody
anyone
anything
both
each
either
everybody
everyone
everything
few
many
neither
nobody
none
no one
nothing
one
several
some
somebody
someone
something
Source: K12reader

Relative pronouns:
that
which
who
whose
whom
where
when
whatever
whichever
whoever
whomever

AND SEE:
List of pronouns at Grammar Revolution

AUXILIARY VERBS
do
does
did
has
have
had
is
am
are
was
were
be
being
been
may
must
might
should
could
would
shall
will
can
Cambridge Grammar of English Language includes need & dare)

*The subject can be a simple noun without any modifiers or determinatives (Rex [SUBJECT] barked.); a noun phrase (The neighbor’s dog Rex [SUBJECT] barked.); or a noun clause (What Rex did [SUBJECT] was bark.).

Relevant posts:
Restrictive and nonrestrictive elements (all posts)
Phrase versus clause
Adjective, adjective phrase, adjective clause
Finite and nonfinite verbs
Independent clause
Will this relationship last? (“function words” can predict)
“Open” and “closed” word classes
Huddleston and Pullum on auxiliary verbs

Sources:
OWL on pronouns noun
k12reader.com
An Introduction to English Grammar 2nd Ed. Gerald C. Nelson and Sidney
..Greenbaum

A Student’s Introduction to English Grammar by Rodney Huddleston and
..Geoffrey K. Pullum

Richard Nordquist on Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses at
about.com

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