I’ve been telling the class that in twenty years’ time, comma splices will be gone. Everyone will use them, and nobody will think they’re wrong.
Then yesterday F.M. asked why I’m teaching the comma-splice rule if it’s going away.
I’m teaching the comma-splice rule because today is today. Babies born this year (probably) won’t have to deal with comma splices when they’re twenty, but you’re not them.
You’re you, you were born when you were born, and today, in the year 2018, comma splices are still a thing. So I have to teach them, and you have to learn them. Tant pis! (That’s French for You have to learn not to use comma splices in English 110.)
I don’t mind teaching comma splices, by the way. Not at all. The comma-splice rule has always made sense to me.
That said, my view of comma splices changed when I discovered that the French consider them correct. If French writers can use a comma to join two independent clauses, why can’t we ?
It looks like Spanish-speaking writers don’t have a comma-splice rule, either. Spanish writers may not even have to trouble themselves over run-on sentences.
I wonder whether punctuation rules are easier to learn in French & Spanish.
You can also find the Punctuation Card at The Guardian.
Note that Mr. Donovan uses the traditional 8 parts of speech (also used by dictionaries), as opposed to more recent classifications.
A list with examples from Pasadena City College
A compound sentence consists of two or more complete sentences (independent clauses) combined into one:
Toes are chopped off; severed fingers fly through the air.*
Toes are chopped off; [INDEPENDENT CLAUSE] severed fingers fly through the air. [INDEPENDENT CLAUSE]
Toes are chopped off. [COMPLETE SENTENCE/INDEPENDENT CLAUSE]
Fingers fly through the air. [COMPLETE SENTENCE/INDEPENDENT CLAUSE]
There are 4 ways to combine independent clauses:
|How to join independent clauses (compound sentence)
Important: these methods do not apply to joining a dependent clause with an independent clause (complex sentence)
|Comma and FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)
||Toes are chopped off, and severed fingers fly through the air.
||Toes are chopped off; severed fingers fly through the air.
|Semicolon, “fancy FANBOYS,” & comma
(“fancy FANBOYS” = adverbial conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs)
||Toes are chopped off; moreover, severed fingers fly through the air.
||The main reason that Zipes likes fairy tales, it seems, is that they provide hope: they tell us that we can create a more just world.*
|DO NOT join two independent clauses with a comma! **
||Toes are chopped off, severed fingers fly through the air. WRONG!
|DO NOT simply run the two independent clauses together! ***
||Toes are chopped off severed fingers fly through the air. WRONG!
Acocella, Joan. “The Lure of the Fairy Tale.” The New Yorker. 23 July 2012. Print.
** As with so many grammar and writing rules, the comma-splice rule has an exception. However, I wouldn’t worry about it for college writing. When you are writing papers for college classes, do not use a comma to combine independent clauses.
*** There are no exceptions to this rule that I’m aware of.
• 5+2: the canonical sentence (clause) patterns
• Independent clause
• Compound sentence – how to punctuate
• Complex sentence
• 3 ways to combine the 7 clause patterns
For example, [INTRODUCTORY PHRASE] the story of “Little Red Riding Hood” has appeared in many guises.
Reading “Little Red Riding Hood,” [INTRODUCTORY PARTICIPLE CLAUSE]* I am struck by the story’s lack of logic.
When I was little, [INTRODUCTORY ADVERBIAL CLAUSE] my mother read me the story of “Little Red Riding Hood.”
NEVER use a semicolon after an introductory element!
For example; the story of “Little Red Riding Hood” has appeared in many guises.
Reading “Little Red Riding Hood;” I am struck by the story’s lack of logic.
* The participle clauses are often called the participle phrase.
From an amusing list of pet peeves posted by a writing teacher:
In my ten years of composition instruction, I have developed a set of pet peeves associated with the body of student writing I have read. Any of my students reading this should keep in mind that I do not direct this at any particular student — this list is a synthesis of common writing errors that I often find in student papers at every grade level 6-12 and every academic level, including Honors or AP.
• Run-ons, comma splices, and fragments. Subject+verb+complete thought=sentence. Commas cannot join independent clauses. Independent clauses cannot simply be mashed together either. Let me introduce you to the semicolon. He is your friend.
No question about it: the semicolon is my friend.
A terrific example from Cengage:
When I eat, my cat gets hungry.
When I eat my cat gets hungry.
Without the Oxford comma:
“The greatest influences in my life are my sisters, Oprah Winfrey and Madonna.”
With the Oxford comma:
“The greatest influences in my life are my sisters, Oprah Winfrey, and Madonna.”
This Embarrasses You and I
by Sue Shellenbarger | WSJ | June 19, 2012
(click on image to enlarge)
I always use the “Oxford comma!”
The “Oxford comma” is the final comma in a series:
In class today, we discussed “Hansel and Gretel,” combined sentences, worked on sentence paragraph focus and did an exercise on misplaced modifiers.
[NO COMMA AFTER ‘PARAGRAPH FOCUS’]
In class today, we discussed “Hansel and Gretel,” combined sentences, worked on sentence paragraph focus, and did an exercise on misplaced modifiers.
[COMMA AFTER ‘PARAGRAPH FOCUS’]
Without Oxford comma:
This book is dedicated to my roommates, Nicole Kidman and God.
This book is dedicated to my roommates, Nicole Kidman, and God.
Would you use commas in this sentence — and why or why not?
The science fair which lasted all day ended with an awards ceremony.
Source: the OWL
ANSWER AND EXPLANATION